Ceteris paribus, what comes after day 1 of a conference? Well, day 2 of course…
David Platt - teacher and author (and mad professor?), Rolling Thunder Computing
• Day 2’s keynote on why software sucks, which was adapted from his book by the same name.
• Lots of statistics on why users hate our software, mostly boiling down to the theory that software is built by geeks for geeks but actually used by regular folks.
• 2 million web users in 1994 has become 1200 million in 2006; and almost all are now laymen (in 1994 almost all were geeks themselves).
• Platt’s rule, “know thy user for he is not thee”
• Users don’t want to use your application, they want to have used it – so understanding that you provide a means to an end rather than an end in itself is a helpful thought pattern.
• Customers don’t buy software, they buy the outcome it’s intended to create, e.g. you don’t buy a drill from B&Q, you are really buying a hole.
• Transferring extra clicks into cash (salary costs of time spent clicking) is a useful way to demonstrate this to management.
• Suggested solutions:
1. Add a virgin to your design team, i.e. get someone never used your system before to try it and observe their challenges.
2. Break convention when needed – for example, why have a save button if you could just have the system save things as you go?
3. Don’t allow edge cases to reach mainstream – if something is really unlikely to be used by more than 1% of visitors, why include it in the main real estate?
4. Instrument carefully – watch user experience, track clicks, see what users actually click and how frequently, how do they arrive at certain pages/features?
5. Always question each design decision, “is it taking us closer to ‘just working’ or further away?”
What I think
• Some of the talk didn’t apply to Betfair per se, as online gaming/gambling etc joins the ranks of things like porn (can I say that?) in software that’s used for the experience, rather than to go through a process to arrive at a destination.
• Most of the examples are based on software that shipped with pointless features or usability issues. What wasn’t addressed was how architects and engineers relate to this – I agree that you can make terrible usability errors, but this is usually a decision making process by product managers and other stakeholders rather than the result of developers work. More material on how engineers can push back on these decisions would help us as a profession.
• Instrument carefully is good advice, and in my opinion is critical to effective A/B testing. Knowing what your customers like best coupled with the ability to try new layouts or versions in a lightweight way is a pretty important to keeping the best software out there.
Ted Neward - independent software development architect and mentor, Neward & Associates
• What are architects really about and what does architecture mean?
• We tend to get carried away with “what if’s” like what if I want to change logging system later so build in 96 logging APIs and pretty much use 1 or 2.
• Do we have architectural styles in the same way as building architecture has styles?
• Defining pragmatism – avoiding idealism in favor of something appropriate.
• There is no such thing as NFR, they are all just requirements.
• What do architects do:
1. Understand (what’s the problem, what’s the constraints)
2. Reassess (changing goals, changing constraints)
3. Explore (more potential solutions, new opportunities)
• Beware of the coolness trap – cool technology doesn’t mean appropriate technology.
• The 3 kinds of architects:
1. Infrastructure – datacenters, networks, storage
2. Enterprise – CTO high level leadership
3. Solutions– the “per project” answers to business questions
• Patterns are not architecture; they are simply a vocabulary we can use to have high-speed discussions about technical ideas.
• When designing systems, make big decisions first, then next most detailed, then next most detailed…
• Idea of architecture catalogue (the things you do as an architect)
1. Communication – transports, exchanges, and formats.
2. Presentation – UI, style, and delivery.
3. State management – durable vs. transient, context vs. process.
4. Processing – implementation, transactions, and shared data.
5. Resource management – location, registry, discovery.
6. Tools – languages, data formats.
• If you don’t explicitly define architecture it will be implicitly defined for you!
• Architecture is a bigger picture view than a developer would typically take.
What I think
• Not sure I agree with the bigger picture assertion, as I think this promotes the ivory tower perception of architects – and besides, successful software demands that everyone involved in building it understands the bigger picture.
• You need to consider future options, but take into account likelihood and difficulty to change and watch for entering diminishing returns!
• One of the reasons traditional architects don’t suffer the same difficulties we do is that the constraints and practicalities in real world construction are so much more visible. We need to put more effort into making these understood.
• I like the NFR idea because so few people talk about scalability and availability etc as business benefits, but they most certainly are!
• Agree with the patterns point, too many people get hung up on them but they do not describe a working solution.
• While I always like to talk about defining architecture as a trade, I am not sure about the catalogue idea – some of those decisions (like presentation, data formats, and languages) and surely best made by those closest to the problem; i.e. the delivery engineers.
Dr Neil Roodyn - independent consultant, trainer and author
• Gave a talk called “it’s all wrong, change it all” a rather provocative title that attracted me to the session…
• We know things are going to change, so how can we put ourselves in a position where this is as easy as possible?
• We’re in a change heavy industry, however, humans are naturally change averse so this is something we have to work hard at.
• Abstractions actually make it harder to change things, because they bind code to a particular abstraction – and people tend to feel emotional attachment to their implementations!
• Big visions are so important - always remember that’s what you’re delivering against, not the details.
• We get carried away with reusability – make sure the expected demand for it to be reusable justifies the cost of building it in a reusable way.
• How you design your system can make it more change-friendly or less change-friendly, this is how architecture can help.
• People are the biggest factor – there is a fine line between continuous improvement and gold plating.
• Don’t underestimate malleability of code.
What I think
• People typically associate change with risk or loss. Part of the trick to getting buy in to ideas and making people happy to adopt changes is to address good-old-fashioned “what’s in it for me?”
• Abstraction layers scares me because we’re not getting smarter at the same rate that we’re abstracting away from the primitives. I think we have a problem as an industry, which is convincing people to learn to be engineers (computer scientists) over quick and dirty coders (learn Java in 28 days and get a job).
Paul Preiss – President, IASA
• Dealing with how we establish architecture as a profession in it’s own right.
• To be a profession something must have:
1. An identifiable body of knowledge
2. Able to enter this trade without having to have been something else first
• Helping to realize architecture as a profession is a key purpose of the IASA group.
• America Institute of Architects formed in 1857 because (sound familiar?):
1. It is difficult to solve real architecture problems due to lack of targeted resources
2. It is difficult to find experienced architects
3. It is difficult to be of maximum value to our employers due to lack of stable job definition
4. It is difficult to tell a qualifies architect from an unqualified one
• Architects tend to be in one of 4 major groups:
3. Thought leaders
4. Service integrations
• Professional perspectives and skills taxonomy are resources we’re trying to build up – providing that ‘identifiable body of knowledge’
• The skills one must master to truly deserve the title of architect are:
1. The IT environment
2. Business technology strategy
4. Human dynamics
5. Quality attributes
6. Software architecture
7. Infrastructure architecture
What I think
• Working towards formalizing architecture as a practice, a role, and a valuable and necessary part of a team is a massive undertaking – we have work to do here as an industry.
• Perhaps the key to this is working backwards from result? Maybe we need to ask ourselves “how do we test for architecture?” If we can work out what we’d be able to observe in an organization with this nebulous architecture thing in it vs. one that does not, then we’ll have an answer and some benefits to point at!
• In the short term we can’t test for architecture so how do we find them? Well you can test for thinking patterns, values, and philosophies so look for the ones that contribute the most to your organizations definition of success.
• Perhaps we need a charter? Some publically visible set of principles that anyone engaging a software architect should expect to be met?
• Good to see the ‘ities’ discussed as central to what we do.
• I still say it’s science Mr. Preiss – but pragmatic science! We solve real-world business problems by using our skill and experience to apply the right technology.
And with that I must once again apply my problem solving skills to the problem of unconsumed beer. See you tomorrow, same bat-time, same bat-channel...
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